Indeed; just pointing out that what's fast and accurate in your realm (science, games etc.) is slow and not necessarily accurate either in the (often ignored here) business realm.
'Precision as Displayed' is set by default in all my Excel sheets; it's disconcerting when 'IF A1=2' fails, or when FoxPro says that 1 + 1 = 1 for that matter...
Last edited by MikeS; May 15th, 2017 at 12:04 PM.
Surely that can be a problem with ANY computer language.
Over the years, I've had problems with various, including the C7 I've done most of my 'serious' work with. Where such things mattered, I always took the precaution of using a special rounding function on both sides of the comparison to make sure that if the two numbers were the same, then the computer recognised them as such. If I didn't, there was always a possibility that one number or the other might still have a stray (VERY 'stray') 0.000000000001 or such-like hanging in there!
Geoff
Note by "decimal", I don't necessarily mean that a number is expressed in, say, BCD, although that would make for convenience.
Simply maintaining the exponent as a power of 10 rather than 2 (or 16, as in S/360 floating point) is sufficient. While most have heard of IEEE 754 floating point, few are familiar with IEEE 854. At any rate, interest in decimal radix is very much alive. Somewhere, even recall reading about a decimal coprocessor done in FPGA.
Students studying numerical methods are often given a problem that involves trig functions near their limits usually expressed as a quotient. The naive learner simply codes the expression as stated and discovers that the result is pure garbage. It's an object lesson in not blindly trusting the computer to come up with the "right" answer.
What Chuck said.
Quoting from his link:
"Most computers today support binary floating-point in hardware. While suitable for many purposes, binary floating-point arithmetic should not be used for financial, commercial, and user-centric applications or web services because the decimal data used in these applications cannot be represented exactly using binary floating-point".
As someone who spent 40 years or so with systems and software for the accounting and financial services markets, that's a truth I learned very early on...
I'm trying to remember an article from the HP Journal from years back. As best as I can recall, it was a way of doing decimal floating point by expressing the mantissa in groups of 20(?) bits, each group having the range from 0-999999 in binary, or something to that effect. The benefit was that you could get 6 digits of significance, where doing the same as BCD would only get you 5. Does anyone remember the article?
That reminds me of an issue that many raytracers have:
If you calculate the intersection of a ray and some surface (sphere, plane, cylinder, etc), then the intersection point is never exactly *on* the surface of course, due to the limited precision.
So your intersection point is either in front or behind the surface, depending on which way the rounding turned out.
Now, if you don't take this into account, and then proceed to reflect the ray at the intersection point, you will often find that your rendered surface will have 'holes': random black pixels.
Why? Simple: when you reflect your ray, you implicitly assume that it is bounced against the surface, so it should be on the 'outside'. But if due to rounding your intersection point was actually on the 'inside' of the surface, then the reflected ray will bounce back to the surface again, and the light may get 'trapped' inside the object for the remaining 'bounces' to be calculated. That's why you'll get those random black pixels.
Some implementations just leave it at that... Others try to use bruteforce to 'fix' it: Either they increase the supersampling to a level where the black pixels will 'blend in' with the correct neighbours, so the issue is not apparent. Or, they just use double precision floating point everywhere (or worse, if the FPU supports it). Neither gives correct results.
Smart coders can get it working fine without any supersampling, and just single precision. You can use one of these elegant solutions:
1) When you calculate the intersection point, step back along the ray by a certain epsilon value. With a well-chosen epsilon, the intersection point is now always on the correct side of the surface, you never 'overshoot' inside the object.
2) Keep track of what object your ray last bounced from. If it is the same object as the nearest intersection at the current bounce, then it is suspect. In that case, if the length of the ray (distance between the previous and current intersection point) is shorter than a given epsilon, discard this nearest intersection and take the next-nearest one instead, because you have likely bounced against the same surface again.
It's been mentioned a few times, but I discovered FreeBASIC a couple years ago. Sweet language there - and compiled too. It is far from a toy and probably the most capable modern dialect of BASIC I've come across.
Yes, FreeBasic.
A massive project. Very interesting.
The base of the system is the old MS QuickBasic, and at one level, the language follows the syntax of QB. You can use the system as supplied as a console (command prompt) system just like QB.
But, there are a PILE of libraries included, all based around gcc (i.e. 'C') which underlies the compilation process, that can be easily invoked. Plus, you can operate as windows, generating full windows applications.
I've used the system to create a couple of small windows utilities, using my own simple code plus some windows features (like a full windows looking file-list browse/open process), also done a number of progs to provide access to MySQL databases (can do same for SQL if required) - these latter staying as console mode.
Fair number of demo progs to follow/copy/tweak. Compile/link options set to run from Batch file, great list of options, many of which I do NOT understand, so I've used just a few, but it worked fine, pretty much as installed 'out-of-the-box' (which nowadays should be 'as-downloaded').
Geoff
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