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Thread: KAYPRO 10 Help Needed Please

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jan 2019
    PanamaCity, Florida

    Default KAYPRO 10 Help Needed Please

    I picked up a KAYPRO 10 and a Box with a Bunch of Manuals with it. It powers on and comes to a screen that says:
    Mon 1.9g
    Then if I hit RETURN it displays:
    KAYPRO 10 58K CP/M Version 2.2G & ZCPR Version 3.0 - MODIFIED BY COMPUTER MANIA

    I can not pass this. Say I type in the letter d and hit Return It comes back on the screen with a d?
    If I type d b:$uvs It comes back with D B:$UVS?
    Anything I type it replies back with what I type and puts a ? On it and goes back to
    I think I am in the Root of the Black Hole or Something.
    Any Help would be Very Much Appreciated

  2. #2
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Melbourne, Australia


    Welcome to these forums.

    Quote Originally Posted by RkSebring View Post
    CP/M Version 2.2G & ZCPR Version 3.0
    I am unfamiliar with the Kaypro, but based on the "CP/M", I suggest that you try some CP/M commands, such as DIR

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Mar 2013
    Chaffee, MO


    This will get you started.

    CP/M ver 1.4 & 2.x Programmer's Reference Guide
    ================================================== ======


    DIR Display file directory, current drive
    DIR d: Display file directory, designated drive
    DIR filename.typ Search for file name, current drive
    DIR *.typ Display all files of named type, curr drive
    DIR filename.* Display all types of designated filename
    DIR x????.* Display all filenames 5 characters long and
    starting with letter x

    TYPE filename.typ Display ASCII file, current drive
    TYPE d:filename.typ Display ASCII file, designated drive

    ERA filename.typ Erase named file, current drive
    ERA *.* Erase all files, curr drv, ver 2.x curr user
    ERA *.typ Erase all files, current drive
    ERA d:filename.typ Erase named file, designated drive
    ERA filename.* Erase all types of named file, current drive

    REN nuname.typ=olname.typ Rename file, current drive
    REN d:nuname.typ=olname.typ Rename file, designated drive

    SAVE n filename.typ Save as named file, current drive
    SAVE n d:filename.typ Save as named file, designated drive
    n pages (page = 256 bytes) starting at 100H

    d: Switch to designated drive, making it current drive
    V 1.4: A-D V 2.x: A-P

    USER n Change user area (n=0 to 15) (ver 2.x)


    DDT Initiate Dynamic Debugging Tool
    DDT filename.typ Initiate DDT and load named file

    ASM filename Assemble named ASM file on current drive
    ASM d:filename Assemble named ASM file on designated drive
    ASM Assemble named ASM file:
    a = source file drive
    b = HEX file destination drive (Z=skip)
    c = PRN file destination drive (X=console,Z=skip)

    LOAD filename Make COM file from named HEX file on current drive
    LOAD d:filename Make COM file from named HEX file on design. drive

    DUMP filename.typ Display file in hex, current drive
    DUMP d:filename.typ Display file in hex, designated drive

    MOVCPM Relocate and execute (max) KByte CP/M system
    MOVCPM n Relocate and execute n KByte CP/M system
    MOVCPM n * Create relocated image in RAM of n Kbyte
    CP/M system, ready for SYSGEN or SAVE
    MOVCPM * * Create relocated image in RAM of (max) Kbyte
    CP/M system, ready for SYSGEN or SAVE

    SYSGEN Initiate SYStem GENerate program

    SUBMIT filename parameters Execute SUB file using optional parameter(s)

    XSUB Execute eXtended SUBmit program (V2.x)

    ED filename.typ Execute EDitor to create or edit named file
    ED d:filename.typ Execute EDitor to create or edit named file

    STAT Display STATus (R/W or R/O) \/ current drive
    STAT d: and available disk space /\ design. drive
    STAT DEV: Display DEVice assignments
    STAT VAL: Display VALid device assignments
    STAT DSK: Display DISK characteristics (V2.x)
    STAT USR: Display current USeR areas (V2.x)
    STAT filename.typ $S Display size of file (V2.x)
    STAT fiename.typ Display file characteristics, current drive
    STAT d:filename.typ Display file characteristics, designated drive
    STAT d:=R/O Change designated drive to Read-Only
    STAT filename.typ $R/O Change named file to Read-Only (V2.x)
    STAT filename.typ $R/W Change named file to Read-Write (V2.x)
    STAT filename.COM $SYS Change named file to System file (V2.x)
    STAT filename.COM $DIR Change named file to Directory file (V2.x)
    STAT gd:=pd: Change general device (CON:,LST:,PUN:,RDR:)
    assignment of physical device (IOBYTE)



    PIP Initiate Peripheral Interchange Program
    *d:=s:filename.typ Copy named file from source drive to dest drive
    *d:nuname.*=s:olname.typ Copy & rename from source drive to dest drive
    PIP d:=s:filename.typ Initiate PIP and copy named file
    PIP d:=s:*.* from source drive \/ all files
    PIP d:=s:filename.* to || all named files
    PIP d:=s:*.typ destination drive /\ all files named type
    PIP LST:=filename.typ Send named file to list device
    PIP PUN:=filename.typ Send named file to punch device
    PIP CON:=filename.typ Send named file to console device
    PIP filename.typ=RDR: Copy data from reader device to named file

    *nuname.typ=aname.typ,bname.typ,cname.typ ASCII copy & concatenate
    *nuname.typ=aname.typ,bname.typ ASCII copy & concatenate
    *nuname.typ=aname.typ[X],bname.typ[X] binary copy & concatenate

    PIP LST:=aname.typ,bname.typ Send files in sequence to list device
    PIP LST:=s:aname.typ,s:bname.typ Send files in sequence to list device

    PIP allows access to any logical and physical devices defined in the
    CP/M system. Logical devices: CON: RDR: PUN: LST:
    Physical devices: TTY: CRT: PTR: UR1: UR2: PTP: UP1: UP2: LPT: UL1:

    Special PIP devices (locations 109H to 1FFH are not used in the PIP
    image and can be replaced by used drivers using DDT)
    NUL: Send 40 NUL's (ASCII 00H) to the device
    (can be issued at the end of punched output)
    EOF: Send a CP/M EOF (ASCII Ctrl-Z=1AH) to dest device
    (sent automatically at end of ASCII transfers thru PIP)
    INP: Special PIP input source which can be patched into PIP:
    PIP gets input from here by calling 103H, with data
    returned at 109H)
    OUT: Special PIP output destination which can be patched into PIP:
    PIP calls 106H with data to be output in C for each char.
    PRN: Same as LST: except that tabbs are expanded to every 8th
    column, lines are numbered, and page ejects are inserted
    every 60 lines with an initial eject (same as PIP options [t8np])


    example *filename.typ=RDR:[B]

    [B] - read data block until ^S (ctrl-S) character
    [Dn] - delete characters past column n
    [E] - echo all copy operations to console
    [F] - remove form feeds
    [Gn] - get file from user area n (V2.x)
    [H] - check for proper HEX format
    [I] - same as H plus ignores ":00"
    [L] - change all upper case characters to lower case
    [N] - add line numbers without leading zeros
    [N2] - same as N plus leading zeros and a TAB after number
    [O] - object file transfer; ignore end-of-file (Ctrl-Z)
    [P] - insert form feed every 60 lines
    [Pn] - insert form feed every n lines
    [Qstring^Z] - Quit copying after string is found
    [R] - read SYS file (V2.x)
    [Sstring^Z] - Start copying when string is found
    [Tn] - expand tab space to every n columns
    [U] - change all lower case characters to upper case
    [V] - verify copied data (destination must be disk file)
    [W] - delete R/O files at destination (V2.x)
    [X] - copy non-ACII files
    [Z] - zero parity bit (hi bit) on all characters in file


    CON: CONsole device (defined in BIOS)
    EOF: send End-of-File (ASCII ^Z) to device
    INP: INPut source (pathced in PIP)
    LST: LiST device (defined in BIOS)
    NUL: send 40 NUL's to device
    OUT: OUTput destination (pathced in PIP)
    PRN: same as LST:; tabs every 8th char, number lines & page
    ejects every 60 lines with initial eject
    PUN: PUNch device (defined in BIOS)
    RDR: ReaDeR device (defined in BIOS)


    Control char ASCII code Function

    C 03h Reboot - CP/M warm boot
    E 05h Start new line
    H 08h Backspace and delete (V2.x)
    I 09h Tab 8 columns
    J 0Ah Line feed
    M 0Dh Carriage return
    P 10h Printer on/Printer off
    R 12h Retype current line
    S 13h Stop display outout (any char except ^C restarts)
    U 15h Delete line
    X 18h Same as (V1.4)
    Z 1Ah End of console input (ED & PIP)
    delete/rubout 7Fh Delete and display character (tape only)



    line# label operation operant ;comment

    labels followed by colon 1-16 alphanumeric characters
    symbol (eq. EQU) no colon first must be alpha, ? or .
    labels are case insensitive (treated as uppercase)
    $ is insignificant and can be inserted
    anywhere for readability

    Assembly Program Format (space separates fields)

    [line#] label: opcode oerand(s) ;comment

    A number of digits with a suffix:
    B binary
    O or Q octal
    D decimal (default)
    H hexadecimal

    Reserved words in operand fields

    The names of the 8080 registers are reserved, and produce the
    following values if encountered in the operand field:

    A 7
    B 0
    C 1
    D 2
    E 3
    H 4
    L 5
    M 6
    SP 6
    PSW 6

    Mnemonics for machine instructions are reserved and evaluate to
    their internal codes. Instructions which require operands will
    get zeroes in their operand fields, e.g. MOV will produce 40H

    The symbol $ in the operand field evaulates to the address of
    the next instruction to generate, not including the instruction
    within the current logical line

    String constants are delimieted by an apostrophe ('), and a
    double apostrophe ('') will produce one apostrophe

    Operators (unsigned)

    a+b a added to b
    a-b difference between a and b
    +b 0+b (unary addition)
    -b 0-b (unary subtraction)
    a*b a multiplied by b
    a/b a divided by b (integer)
    a MOD b remainder after a/b
    NOT b complement all b-bits
    a AND b bit-by-bit AND of a and b
    a OR b bit-by-bit OR of a and b
    a XOR b bit-by-bit XOR of a and b
    a SHL b shift a left b bits, end off, zero fill
    a SHR b shift a right b bits, end off, zero fill

    Hierarcy of operations

    highest: * / MOD SHL SHR
    - +
    OR XOR


    ORG const Set program or data origin (Default=0)
    END start End program, optional address where excution begins

    EQU const Define symbol value (may not be changed)
    SET const Define symbol value (may be changed later)

    IF const Assemble block conditionally until ENDIF
    ENDIF Terminate conditionala ssembly block

    DS const Define storage sace for later use
    DB byte[,byte...] Define bytes as numeric or ASCII constants
    DW word[,word...] Define words (two bytes)

    const=constant (true if bit 0 is 1, otherwise false)

    Error codes

    D Data error (element cannot be placed in data area)
    E Expression error (ill-formed expression)
    L Label error
    N Not implemented
    O Overflow (expression too complicated to compute)
    P Phase error (label has different values on each pass)
    R register error (specified value not compatible with op code)
    U Undefined label (label does not exist)
    V Vaue error (operand improper)

    Fatal errors



    ASC ASCII text file, usually Basic source
    ASM ASseMbly langaige file (source for ASM program)
    BAK BAcKup copy file (created by editor)
    BAS BASic source program file, usually tokenized
    COM COMmand file (transient exeuctable program)
    DAT DATa file
    DOC DOCument file
    FOR FORtran source program file
    INT INTermediate Basic program file (executable)
    HEX HEXadecimal format file (for LOAD program)
    LIB Library file used by macro assembler
    PLI PL/I source file
    PRN PRiNt file (source and object produced by ASM)
    REL RELocatable file
    SAV System file (V2.x)
    SUB SUBmit text file executed by SUBMIT program
    SYM SID symbol file
    TEX TEXt formatter source file
    XRF Cross reference file
    $$$ Temporary file

    Filename - 8 characters maximum
    Filetype - 3 characters maximum

    Invalid filename and filetype characters
    < > . , ; : = ? [ ]


    DDT filename.HEX
    DDT filename.COM

    A sad Assemble symbolic code; start at sad

    D Dump RAM to console from cad, 16 lines
    D sad Dump RAM to console from sad, 16 lines
    D sad,ead Dump RAM to console from sad thru ead

    F sad,ead,const Fill RAM from sad thru ead with const

    G Start program exec. at saved PC
    G sad Start program exec. at sad
    G sad,bp1 Start program exec. at sad and stop at bp1
    G sad,bp1,bp2 Start program exec. at sad and stop at bp1 or bp2
    G,bp1,bp2 Start program exec. at cad and stop at bp1 or bp2
    G0 Jump to 0000H ==> exits DDT (equivalent to Ctrl-C)

    H a,b Display hex a+b and a-b

    I filename Set up FCB at 5CH for user code
    I filename.typ Set up FCB at 5CH for R-command (HEX or COM file)

    L Disassemble RAM from cad, 12 lines
    L sad Disassemble RAM from sad, 12 lines
    L sad,ead Disassemble RAM from sad thru ead

    M sad,ead,nad Move RAM block from sad thru ead to nad

    R Read file specified by I command to RAM
    R offset at normal address + optional offset
    The R command requires a previos I command
    There is no W (write file) command, instead
    exit DDT (by G0 or Ctrl-C) and then use SAVE

    S sad Examine and optionally alter RAM, byte by byte,
    starting at sad

    T Trace: execute 1 instruction with register dump
    T n Trace: Execute n instructions with register dump

    U Untrace: same as T except that intermediate
    U n steps are not displayed

    X Examine register or flags, display format:
    CfZfMfEfIf A=bb B=dddd D=dddd H=dddd S=dddd P=dddd inst
    Xr Examine/change registers or flags
    C Carry flag (0/1)
    Z Zero flag (0/1)
    M Sign flag (0/1)
    E Parity flag (0/1)
    I Aux Carry flag (0/1)
    A Accumulator (0-FF)
    B BC reg pair (0-FFFF)
    D DE reg pair (0-FFFF)
    H HL reg pair (0-FFFF)
    S Stack Pointer (0-FFFF)
    P Program Counter (0-FFFF)

    cad = current address
    nad = new address
    sad = start address
    ead = end address

    ? = error, can mean:
    file cannot be opened
    checksum error in HEX file
    assembler(disassembler overlayed


    nA Append n lines to buffer (n=0 - use haf of buffer)
    B Move pointer to beginning of file
    -B Move pointer to end of file
    nC Move pointer forward n characters
    nD Delete n characters forward
    E End edit, close file, return to CP/M
    nFs Find n'th occurence of string 's'
    H End edit, move pointer to beginning of file
    I Insert text at pointer until ^Z typed
    Is Insert string at pointer
    nK Kill n lines starting at pointer
    nL Move pointer n lines
    nMx Execute command string 'x' n times
    nNs Global F-command - until end of file
    O Abort ED, start over with original file
    nP List next n pages of 23 lines (n=0 - current page)
    Q Quit without changing input file
    Rfn Read fn.LIB into buffer at current pointer
    nSx^Zy Substitute string 'y for next n forward occurrences of string 'x'
    nT Type n lines
    U Change lower case to upper case (next entry)
    V Enable internal line number generation
    nW Write n lines to output file, start at beginning of buffer
    nX Write next n lines to file 'X$$$$$$$.LIB'
    nZ Pause n/2 seconds (2 MHz)
    n Move forward n lines
    <CR> Move forward one line and type one line
    - Move backward
    n:x Move to n line number and perform 'x' command
    :mx Perform command 'x' from current line to line m
    n::mx Move to n line number and perform command 'x' from
    current line to line m

    note: "-" valid on all positioning and display commands
    for backward movement (e.g. -nC)


    Enter PIP wait for the * prompt. Hit Return to go back to exit PIP.
    Now, enter the user area, say USER 1. Type SAVE 28 PIP.COM and hit
    Return (SAVE 30 PIP.COM in CP/M 3).

    Now, PIP.COM is in your new user area, and you can copy any file
    into your area from area 0 by typing PIP A:=<ufn>[G0] and Return.

    ================================================== ========

    The CCP stars with the instructions:

    JMP CCPSTART ; Start the console processor
    JMP CCPCLEAR ; Clear the initial command
    DB 127 ; Maximum command length
    CL: DB 0 ; Current command length
    DB ' ' ; 8 spaces
    DB ' ' ; 8 more spaces
    DB 'COPYRIGHT... ; Copyright notice

    Starting at CL, patch in the command, e.g.:

    CL: DB 3 ; Current command length
    DB 'DIR',0 ; DIR command, NUL terminated
    DB ' ' ; 4 spaces
    DB ' ' ; 8 more spaces
    DB 'COPYRIGHT... ; Copyright notice

    and add this to the CCP image on the system tracks of your disk
    (using MOVCPM, DDT and SYSTEM on most CP/M systems, or DDT amd
    CPM56K.COM or CPM60K.COM on Apple CP/M). Now, after every warm boot
    the CCP will execute this command (in this example a 'DIR' command)


    Function no Value passed to BDOS Value returned in
    in C reg in DE (or E) regs A or HL regs

    Dec Hex

    0 00 System reset -- --
    1 01 Console read -- A = char
    2 02 Console write E = char --
    3 03 Reader read -- A = char
    4 04 Punch write E = char --
    5 05 List write E = char --
    6 06 Direct console I/O E = FFh (input) A = char
    (V2.x) E = char (output) --
    7 07 Get IOBYTE -- A = IOBYTE
    8 08 Set IOBYTE E = IOBYTE --
    9 09 Print string DE = string addr --
    string terminated by $, tabs are expanded as in func 2
    10 0A Read console buffer DE = buffer addr A = #chars in buffer
    buffer: 1st byte = bufsize, 2nd byte = chars input
    11 0B Get console status -- A = 00(not rdy)/FF(rdy)
    12 0C Lift head (V1.x) -- --
    Get version (V2.x) -- HL = version no
    H: 0=CP/M, 1=MP/M
    L: 0=v1.4
    13 0D Reset disk** -- --
    14 0E Select disk E = drive no --
    0=A, 1=B, ...0FH=P
    15 0F Open file DE = FCB addr A = dir code
    16 10 Close file DE = FCB addr A = dir code
    17 11 Search for first DE = FCB addr A = dir code
    18 12 Search for next -- A = dir code
    19 13 Delete file DE = FCB addr A = dir code
    20 14 Read sequential DE = FCB addr A = ret code
    21 15 Write sequential DE = FCB addr A = ret code
    22 16 Create file DE = FCB addr A = dir code
    23 17 Rename file DE = old FCB addr A = dir code
    24 18 Get login vector -- (V1.4) HL = drive code
    25 19 Get disk no -- A = curr disk no
    (0-15 for A-P)
    26 1A Set DMA addr DE = DMA addr --
    27 1B Get alloc vector -- HL = ava
    28 1C Write protect disk -- --
    29 1D Get R/O vector -- HL = R/O vect
    30 1E Set file attrib DE = FCB addr A = dir code
    31 1F Get addr disk params -- HL = dpba
    32 20 Set user code E = user code --
    32 20 Get user code E = FFh A = curr user code
    33 21 Read random DE = ext. FCB addr A = ret code ***
    34 22 Write random DE = ext. FCB addr A = ret code ***
    35 23 Compute file size DE = ext. FCB addr A = ret code
    36 24 Set random record DE = ext. FCB addr A = ret code
    37 25 Reset drive DE = drive vector A = 0
    38 26 (unused) -- --
    39 27 (unused) -- --
    40 28 Write random DE = FCB addr A = ret code ***
    with zero fill

    dir code: directory code:
    0FFH=failed (e.g. file not found, directory full)
    0,1,2,3 = success: offset into current DMA buffer, which
    contains a directory sector, where the FCB can be found

    ret code: return code -- 0=success, non-zero=failed

    * V1.4 none
    ** V1.4 initializes system and selects A: drive
    *** ret codes:
    00 - no error
    01 - reading unwritten data
    03 - cannot close current extent
    04 - seek to unwritten extent
    05 - directory overflow (write only)
    06 - seek past physical end of disk

    char = ASCII character
    addr = address
    dir = directory code
    cdn = current drive number (A=0, B=1, etc)
    dpba = disk parameter block address in CBIOS

    Function 9: string is terminated with '$'

    Function 10: Console buffer: 1st byte = max # chars in buffer (input)
    2nd byte = actual # chars in buffer (output)
    remaining bytes = buffer

    Function 12: CP/M version number: H=00 CP/M, H=01 MP/M
    L=00 ver prior to 2.0
    L=20,21,22... subsequent versions

    Function 13: Resets DMS address to BOOT+0080h

    Function 23: renames file in first 16 bytes of FCB to name in second
    16 bytes in FCB

    Function 24: Returns a 16-bit value in HL - a 16-bit bit map where
    the lowest bit represents A: and the highest bit P:
    If the bit is set, that drive is present in the CP/M system

    Function 29: Returns a similar bit map as func 24, except that a set
    bit marks a drive which is Read/Only.

    Function 33,34: the rn (Random Record No) must be set in the FCB prior to call

    Function 35: fills in the file size in rn. If followed by a random write,
    the file will be extended in length. Not that the "file size"
    merely is the last record # - "hole" in sparse files are not
    accounted for

    Function 36: same as function 35 except that the current random record
    position is stored in rn in FCB.

    Function 37: this function is buggy - avoid using it

    IOBYTE (0003H)

    Device LST: PUN: RDR: CON:
    Bit position 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

    Dec Binary

    0 00 TTY: TTY: TTY: TTY:
    1 01 CRT: PTP: PTR: CRT:
    2 02 LPT: UP1: UR1: BAT:
    3 03 UL1: UP2: UR2: UC1:

    TTY: TeleTYpe
    CRT: Cathode Ray Tube type terminal
    BAT: BATch process (RDR=inut, LST=output)
    UC1: User defined Console
    LPT: Line Printer
    UL1: User defined List device
    PTR: Paper Tape Reader
    UR1: User defined Reader device 1
    UR2: User defined Reader device 2
    PTP: Paper Tape Punch
    UP1: User defined Punch device 1
    UP2: User defined Punch device 2

    LOGIN BYTE (0004H)

    low nibble = current drive (0=A, 1=B, etc)
    high nibble = current user (V2.x only)


    Hex Vector Function Value Value
    addr name passed returned

    4A00H+b BOOT Cold start entry point - C=0
    4A03H+b WBOOT Warm start entry point - C=drv no
    4A06H+b CONST Check for console ready - A=const
    4A09H+b CONIN Read from console - A=char
    4A0CH+b CONOUT Write to console C=char -
    4A0FH+b LIST Write to list device C=char -
    4A12H+b PUNCH Write to punch device C=char -
    4A15H+b READER Read from reader device - A=char
    4A18H+b HOME Move head to track 0 - -
    4A1BH+b SELDSK Select drive C=drv no HL=dph*, HL=0 for error
    4A1EH+b SETTRK Set track number BC=trk no -
    4A21H+b SETSEC Set sector number BC=sec no -
    4A24H+b SETDMA Set DMA address BC=DMA -
    4A27H+b READ Read selected sector - A=dskst
    4A2AH+b WRITE Write selected sector - A=dskst
    4A2DH+b* LOSTST Get list status - A=lstst
    4A30H+b* SECTRAN Sector translate BC=lsecno HL=physec

    BOOT: gets control after the cold start loader
    Basic system initalization
    Send sign-on message
    Set IOBYTE
    Set the WBOOT parameters
    Jump to CCP at its entry point (at its first address 3400H+b)

    WBOOT: gets control after Ctrl-C or JP 0000 or CPU reset
    Reload CP/M CCP and BDOS
    Setup JMP WBOOT at 0000H-0002H (JMP 4A03H+b)
    Set inital value of IOBYTE at 0003H
    Set 0004H hi nibble = current user no, lo nibble = current drive no
    Setup JMP BDOS at 0005H-0007H (JMP 3C06H+b)
    Set C=current drive, then branch to CCP at 3400H+b

    const = console status: 00=idle, FF=data avail

    dph = disk parameter/header address

    dskst = disk status: 00=OK, 01=error

    lstst = list status: 00=busy, FF=ready

    lsecno = logical sector number \
    physec = physical sector number | (standard skew factor = 6)
    smap = sector interlace map address /

    char = 7-bit ASCII char with parity bit (=hi bit) zero

    drv no = drive number: 0=A, 1=B, etc, max 15=P
    trk no = track number (0-76 std CP/M floppy, 0-65535 non-standard)
    sec no = sector number (1-25 std CP/M floppy, 1-65535 non-standard)
    DMA = DMA address (default 0080H)

    * = not used in V1.4
    ** = contents of location 0002Hz


    Byte Function

    0 dr Drive code (0=current, 1=A, 2=B, ...., 16=P)
    1-8 f1-f8 File name, hi but = 0
    9-11 t1-t3 File type + status (hi bits)
    t1: 1=R/O t2: 1=SYS t3: 1=archived
    12 ex Current extent number
    13 s1 reserved (V1.4: not used)
    14 s2 =0 on BDOS call to Open/Make/Search (v1.4: always 0)
    16 rc extent record count: 0-127
    16-31 d0-dn Disk map
    32 cr Current record for R/W
    33-35 rn Random record number, 0-65535, overflow into 3rd byte


    V1.4: b = memsize-16K
    0000 - 00FF System scratch area
    0100 - 28FF+b TPA (Transient Program Area) - COM file area
    2900+b - 30FF+b CCP - Console COmmand Processor
    3100+b - 3DFF+b BDOS
    3E00+b - 3FFF+b CBIOS

    V2.2: b = memsize-20K
    0000 - 00FF System scratch area
    0100 - 33FF+b TPA (Transient Program Area) - COM file area
    3400+b - 3BFF+b CCP - Console COmmand Processor
    3C00+b - 49FF+b BDOS
    4A00+b - 4FFF+b CBIOS

    System scratch area, "page zero":

    00 - 02 Jump to BIOS warm start entry point
    03 IOBYTE
    04 Login byte: Login drive number, current user number
    05 - 07 Jump to BDOS
    08 - 37 Reserved; interrupt vectors & future use
    38 - 3A RST7 - used by DDT and SID programs, contains JMP into DDT/SID
    3B - 3F Reserved for interrupt vector
    40 - 4F Scratch area for CBIOS; unused by distribution version of CP/M
    50 - 5B Not used, reserved
    5C - 7C Default FCB (File Control Block) area
    7D - 7F Optional Default Random Record Position (V2.x)
    80 - FF Default DMA buffer area (128 bytes) for disk I/O
    Also filled with CCP commandline at the start of a program


    Media: 8" soft-sectored floppy-disk single density (IBM 3740 standard)
    Tracks: 77, numbered 0 thru 76
    Sectors/track: 26 (numbered 1 thru 26)
    Bytes/sector: 128 data bytes (one logical record)
    Storage/disk: 256256 bytes (77*26*128)
    File size: any number of sectors from zero to capacity of disk
    Extent: 1 kBytes - 8 sectors (smallest file space allocated)
    Skew: 6 sectors standard (space between consecutive physical sectors
    on track):

    System: Track 0 & 1 (optional)
    Track 0 sector 1: boot loader
    Track 0 sectors 2-26: CCP & BDOS
    Track 1 sectors 1-17: CCP & BDOS
    Track 1 sectors 18-26: CBIOS

    Directory: Track 2:
    16 sectors typical
    32 bytes/entry
    64 entries typical
    extents 0 and 1

    User file area: Remaining sectors on Track 2 and 3 to 76, extents 2
    and above

    A Standard CP/M 8" SSSD floppy contains:

    Track# Sector# Page# Mem address CP/M module name

    00 01 (boot addr) Cold start loader

    00 02 00 3400H+b CCP
    00 03 . 3480H+b CCP
    00 04 01 3500H+b CCP
    00 05 . 3580H+b CCP
    00 06 02 3600H+b CCP
    00 07 . 3680H+b CCP
    00 08 03 3700H+b CCP
    00 09 . 3780H+b CCP
    00 10 04 3800H+b CCP
    00 11 . 3880H+b CCP
    00 12 05 3900H+b CCP
    00 13 . 3980H+b CCP
    00 14 06 3A00H+b CCP
    00 15 . 3A80H+b CCP
    00 16 07 3B00H+b CCP
    00 17 . 3B80H+b CCP

    00 18 08 3C00H+b BDOS
    00 19 . 3C80H+b BDOS
    00 20 09 3D00H+b BDOS
    00 21 . 3D80H+b BDOS
    00 22 10 3E00H+b BDOS
    00 23 . 3E80H+b BDOS
    00 24 11 3F00H+b BDOS
    00 25 . 3F80H+b BDOS
    00 26 12 4000H+b BDOS
    01 01 . 4080H+b BDOS
    01 02 13 4100H+b BDOS
    01 03 . 4180H+b BDOS
    01 04 14 4200H+b BDOS
    01 05 . 4280H+b BDOS
    01 06 15 4300H+b BDOS
    01 07 . 4380H+b BDOS
    01 08 16 4400H+b BDOS
    01 09 . 4480H+b BDOS
    01 10 17 4500H+b BDOS
    01 11 . 4580H+b BDOS
    01 12 18 4600H+b BDOS
    01 13 . 4680H+b BDOS
    01 14 19 4700H+b BDOS
    01 15 . 4780H+b BDOS
    01 16 20 4800H+b BDOS
    01 17 . 4880H+b BDOS
    01 18 21 4900H+b BDOS
    01 19 . 4980H+b BDOS

    01 20 22 4A00H+b BIOS
    01 21 . 4A80H+b BIOS
    01 22 23 4B00H+b BIOS
    01 23 . 4B80H+b BIOS
    01 24 24 4C00H+b BIOS
    01 25 . 4C80H+b BIOS
    01 26 25 4D00H+b BIOS

    02 01-08 Directory block 1
    02 09-16 Directory block 2
    02 17-26 Data
    03-76 01-26 Data


    Each disk drive has an associated 16-byte (8-word) DPH - Disk Parameter
    Header, containing:

    Offset Contents
    ------ --------
    00H XLT Addr of logical-to-physical sector translation vector
    or 0000H of no translation (i.e. they are the same)
    Disk drives with identical sector skew factors
    share the same table
    02H 0000H \
    04H 0000H | Scratchpad values for use within BDOS
    06H 0000H / (initial value unimportant)
    08H DIRBUF Addr of scratchpad 128-byte directory buffer.
    All DPH's share the same DIRBUF.
    0AH DPB Addr of Disk Parameter Block for this drive
    0CH CSV Addr of scratchpad area used for software check for
    changed disks. Each DPH has its own CSV.
    0EH ALV Addr of scratchpad area used for disk storage
    allocation information. Each DPH has its own ALV.

    If the system has n disk drives, the n DPH's are arranged one after
    another, from drive 0 to drive n-1, starting at DPBASE:

    00 | XLT 00 | 0000 | 0000 | 0000 | DIRBUF | DPB 00 | CSV 00 | ALV 00 |
    01 | XLT 01 | 0000 | 0000 | 0000 | DIRBUF | DPB 01 | CSV 01 | ALV 01 |
    .................................................. ....................
    n-1 | XLTn-1 | 0000 | 0000 | 0000 | DIRBUF | DPBn-1 | CSVn-1 | ALVn-1 |

    The SELDSK subroutine is responsible for returning the base address
    of the DPH for the selected drive, or 0000H if there is no such drive:

    NDISKS EQU 4 ; Number of disk drives
    SELDSK: ; Select disk given by BC
    LXI H,0000H ; Error return
    MOV A,C ; Drive OK?
    CPI NDISK ; Carry if so
    RNC ; Return if error
    ; No error, continue
    MOV L,C ; Low (disk)
    MOV H,B ; Hi (disk)
    DAD H ; *2
    DAD H ; *4
    DAD H ; *8
    DAD H ; *16
    LXI D,DPBASE ; First DPH
    DAD D ; DPH(disk)

    The translation vectors (XLT 00 thru XLTn-1) are located elswehere in
    the BIOS and simply correspond one-for-one with the logical sector number
    zero through the sector count.

    The Disk Parameter Block (DPB) for each drive type contains:

    Offset Contents
    ------ --------
    00H SPT 16b Total number of sectors per track
    02H BSH 8b Data allocation block shift factor, determined
    by the data block allocation size
    03H BLM 8b Data allocation block mask (2[BSH-1])
    04H EXM 8b Extent mask, determined by data block allocation
    size and number of disk blocks
    05H DSM 16b Total storage capacity of disk drive
    07H DRM 16b Total number of directory entries minus one
    09H AL0 8b Determines reserved directory blocks
    0AH AL1 8b Determines reserved directory blocks
    0BH CKS 16b Size of directory check vector
    0DH OFF 16b No of reserved tracks at beginning of logical disk
    0FH (end of table)

    BSH and BLM are determined by BLS, the block size or data allocation size

    ----- --- --- DSM<256 DSM>=256
    1024 3 7 0 n/a
    2048 4 15 1 0
    4096 5 31 3 1
    8192 6 63 7 3
    16384 7 127 15 7

    i.e. BLS = 2**n where n = 10 to 14
    BSH = n-7
    BLM = 2**BSH - 1
    EXM = 2**(BHS-2) - 1 if DSM<256
    EXM = 2**(BHS-3) - 1 if DSM>=256

    DSM = maximum data block number supported by this particular drive, measured
    in BLS (BLock Size) units, or simply "number of allocation blocks on drive".
    Blocks are counted from 0 to DSM, and thus BLS*(DSM+1) = the number of bytes
    on the drive (excluding the system tracks). If DSM<256, the disk map in
    the directory entry of the file will be 1 byte/block. If DSM>=256 it will
    be 2 bytes/block.

    DRM = total number of directory entries minus one.

    AL0/AL1 = the directory allocation vector. Consider it a bit map of
    bits 16 bits, bit 0-15, where 0=hi bit of AL0, 7=lo bit of AL0, 8=hi
    bit of AL1, 15=lo bit of AL1. Bits are assigned starting at bit 0 up
    until bit 15. Suppose nbits is the number of bits seet to 1:

    BLS Directory entries
    --- -----------------
    1024 32 * nbits
    2048 64 * nbits
    4096 128 * nbits
    8192 256 * nbits
    16384 512 * nbits

    Example: if DRM=127 (128 directory entries) and BLS=1024 bytes, there
    are 32 directory entries per block, requiring 4 reserved blocks. Thus
    the 4 hi bits if AL0 are set, and AL0=0FH, AL1=00H

    CKS = size of directory check vector
    If drive media is removable, then CKS = (DRM+1)/4
    If drive media is fixed, then CKS=0 (no dir records checked)

    OFF = number of reserved tracks. This value is automatically added
    whenever SETTRK is called. It can be used to skip reserved system
    tracks, or for partitioning a large disk into smaller segmented

    Several DPH's can address the same DPB if the drive characteristics
    are identical. The DPB can be dynamically changed when a new drive
    is addressed by simply changing the pointer in the DPH since the BDOS
    copies the DPB values to a local area whenever the SELDKS function
    is invoked.

    The size of the CSV (scratchpad area to check changed disks) is CKS
    bytes. If CKS=(DRM+1)/4, this area must be reserved. If CKS=0, no
    storage is reserved.

    The size of the ALV (scratchpad area for disk storage allocation info)
    is (DSM/8)+1 bytes where DSM is the disk size in allocation blocks.


    Standard CP/M 8" SSSD disk

    128 bytes/sector
    26 sectors/track
    77 tracks - 2 system tracks
    75 used tracks ==> 243.75 user KBytes/disk
    1024 bytes/block ==> 243 blocks/disk ==> DSM=242
    Directory in 2 first blocks ==> 64 directory entries ==> 241.75 KBytes data

    Sector skew table (1 byte/sector):
    1, 7, 13, 19, 25, 5, 11, 17, 23, 3, 9, 15, 21,
    2, 8, 14, 20, 26, 6, 12, 18, 24, 4, 10, 16, 22


    SPT 16b 26 Sectors per track
    BSH 8b 3 Block shift factor
    BLM 8b 7 Block shift mask
    EXM 8b 0 Extent mask - null
    DSM 16b 242 Disk size - 1 (in blocks)
    DRM 16b 63 directory mask = dir entries - 1
    AL0 8b 0C0H Dir Alloc 0
    AL1 8b 0 Dir Alloc 1
    CKS 16b 16 Directory check vector size
    OFF 16b 2 Track offset: 2 system tracks

    Dirbuf 128 bytes
    ALV 31 bytes
    CSV 16 bytes

    Block size 1024 bytes ==> BSH=3, BLM=7

    DSM = 242 blocks

    Disk size: 243.75 KBytes excluding system tracks
    250.25 KBytes including system tracks

    Apple CP/M 5.25" disks

    Physical format: A B C

    ---- Standard ----- ----- Special ------
    13-sect 16-sect 80-trk/16-sec/2-side

    Bytes/sector 256 256 256
    Sectors/track 13 16 16
    Tracks 35 35 80
    Heads 1 1 2

    Sector skew table (1 byte/sector): no sector skew in CP/M BIOS
    13-sector disks: hard sector skew
    16-sector disks: soft sector skew in 6502 code (CP/M RWTS)

    DPB A B C

    SPT 16b 26 32 32 Sectors per track
    BSH 8b 3 3 4 Block shift factor
    BLM 8b 7 7 15 Block shift mask
    EXM 8b 0 0 0 Extent mask
    DSM 16b 103 127 313 Disk size - 1 (in blocks)
    DRM 16b 47 63 255 Directory mask = dir entries - 1
    AL0 8b 0C0H 0C0H 0F0H Dir Alloc 0
    AL1 8b 0 0 0 Dir Alloc 1
    CKS 16b 12 16 64 Directory check vector size
    OFF 16b 3 3 3 Track offset: 3 system tracks

    Block size 1024 1024 2048
    Dir entries 48 64 256
    Dir blocks 2 2 4
    DSM+1 104 128 314 blocks
    Disk size 104 128 628 KBytes (excluding system tracks)
    113.75 140 640 KBytes (including system tracks)

    Dirbuf 128 128 128 bytes
    ALV 14 17 40 bytes
    CSV 12 16 64 bytes


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